In my research around barefoot running and walking I found an interesting article in New York Times, Wiggling Their Toes at the Shoe Giants.
Recent research suggests that for all their high-tech features, modern running shoes may not actually do much to improve a runner’s performance or prevent injuries. Some runners are convinced that they are better off with shoes that are little more than thin gloves for the feet — or with no shoes at all.
Upstart companies like Vibram, Feelmax and Terra Plana are challenging the running-shoe status quo with thin-sole designs meant to combine the benefits of going barefoot with a layer of protection.
Vibram are famous for their finger shoes. Terra Plana makes some really good looking walking shoes, see links in Vivo Barefoot.
In 2004, Terra Plana became pioneers of the barefoot movement by launching VIVOBAREFOOT, the first minimalist shoe with a patented, ultra thin puncture resistant sole that offers maximum sensory feedback and maximum protection.
Update June 3, 2011.
I did not go all the way to thin-sole design this time, I bought the semi-barefoot Nike Free 3.0 V2 and I really like them.